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    Natural gas (Methane) as fuel for motor vehicles

    The usage of gasoline, diesel and car-gas as fuel for motor vehicles directly depends on limited natural resources of oil and it is clear that in the near future the usage of other fuels, primarily natural gas, whose reserves are much larger and exploitation is much cheaper, will increasingly grow. On the other hand, environmental requirements and charges for use of conventional engine fuels will make of methane the most economical alternative, especially in cities.

    Natural gas is used as fuel for motor vehicles around the world for decades. In Italy, where the use of natural gas is widespread, the installation of natural gas system is factory-build in Fiat vehicles. Such vehicles, imported from Italy, are also on our roads, and experience in terms of economy and work of engine are more than favorable.

    Dried and compressed in filling station for motor vehicles (CNG), it represents a cleaner fuel compared to diesel and petrol with octane number of 140 (petrol - 95, Gas - 115). Due to its favorable combustion characteristics, fuel consumption expressed in kilograms (1 Nm3 = 0.77 kg) is significantly lower compared to other fuels.

    In its business center at 102 Omladinskih brigada street, New Belgrade, CryoGas opened the very first commercial station for filling vehicles with compressed natural gas - methane in Serbia.

    CryoGas, whose employers are recognized experts in this field, make the installation of natural gas unit in motor vehicles. Installation service is located in Belgrade at Dragoslava Srejovića Street number 1.

    The best customer solution is acquisition of vehicles with factory-built installation of natural gas and adjusting such a solution for the installation of gas cylinder that does not take up much space at the rear. Such vehicles are more expensive and the economy is determined by price difference and fuel mileage.

    Unlike LPG, which is a mixture of propane and butane in liquid form (LPG), natural gas is stored in cylinders mounted on the vehicle with pressure of 200 bar and more. The cylinders are from different manufacturers, with different volume and dimensions. Usual installation is set of three cylinders of 27 liters volume that can be filled with 12.5 kg of compressed natural gas. This quantity is sufficient for 250 km of city drive. On the open road vehicle autonomy increases up to 400 km.

    The rest of the installation is similar to the installation of petrol, with a pressure regulator, heaters, pipes, charging connector and mandatory electronics.

    The introduction of natural gas as fuel for urban transport and delivery vehicles is no longer a thing of future; it’s a matter of the moment, since it is already a many years practice for the most cities around the world. For Belgrade, this is the question of primary interest from ecological and economical point of view.

    Belgrade has no subway, no fast city trains and its transport was adjusted to the city bus traffic, as prevalent in long run. Because emission of these vehicles, city is in ecological collapse, and consequently, we pay very expensive price for diesel fuel, which is at least double expensive than the price of natural gas, either compressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG).

    The reduction of pollution and compliance with rigorous environmental regulations were the main reason for world’s capital cities to enter in the program of use of natural gas as fuel for public transport. They may use both compressed (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG - liquefied methane).

    The reason for more widespread use of compressed natural gas lies in the fact that liquefaction process is carried out in expensive plants (order of magnitude less for the plant is 10 million EUR), and if there are no conditions for gas phase consumption the price is even higher, consumption of energy needed for liquefaction increases, and therefore the price of liquefied natural gas goes up.

    The USA is the leader in introduction of liquid natural gas for urban public transport. In Europe and rest of the world the compressed natural gas is still in use. For example, in Los Angeles was in use 250 buses on liquefied natural gas, 419 in Phoenix, Dallas, Houston, El Paso, 224, etc...

    According to the experiences of the Phoenix, introducing of liquefied natural gas in urban public transport requires a non-traditional approach that will accelerate decision making process. Because of this city government formed specialized teams of experts from companies that deal with these technologies. For transport of liquefied natural gas from liquefaction plant to the supply station, they made contracts with specialized companies.

    As a starting point for gaining the necessary experience and future development CryoGas opened the first commercial station for filling vehicles with compressed natural gas in Belgrade.

    Liquid Methane

    In development plans CryoGas has a liquefied natural gas as an ideal solution for the supply of urban and suburban traffic and delivery vehicles in the city, that together results 90% of traffic pollution.

    Filling stations for vehicles on compressed natural gas (CNG) are strictly connected to the natural gas pipeline. Cells filled with liquid natural gas (LNG - liquefied methane) are totally independent from primary sources of gas supply (gas, MRS), where liquefied natural gas is transported in cryogenic tank to filling station storage.

    CryoGas began building of the first plant for methane liquefaction in Belgrade, located at Ibarska main industrial area, with a capacity of 40 tons per day.

    Price of liquefied natural gas (LNG - liquefied methane) is lower than price of the compressed natural gas (CNG), with multiple advantages:

    1. Environmentally cleaner fuel
      Natural gas is purified during process of liquefaction, cleared out of harmful compounds, various hydrocarbons, inert gases, so there is no trace of the nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases of vehicles (pure methane remains in liquid state).
    2. Storage of liquefied gas is at low pressure
      Liquefied natural gas (LNG - liquefied methane) is stored at low temperature and low pressure in special vacuum-insulated tanks resulting increased environment safety and people while compressed natural gas is stored at high pressure – up to 300 bar.
    3. Significantly lower consumption of electricity for vehicle filling
      While fast filling of CNG in vehicles needs compressor of 500 kW, with accessories and power supply for rapid charging, the fast filling of pure methane obtained from liquefied natural gas (LCNG) takes only about 10 kW for cryogenic high pressure pumps with the same capacity. Evaporators are atmospheric and they don’t need additional energy except for difference between ambient temperature and liquefied gas temperature.
    4. The station can also be used for liquid methane filling
      It is possible to charge other type of vehicles that are used for longer distances, with liquefied natural gas (LNG - liquefied methane). Such vehicles are equipped with special tanks.
    5. Lower investment costs compared to the CNG facility
      There is no investment in expensive equipment for pipeline connection, metering and regulating stations, powerful compressors, storage of compressed gas (cylinders), power stations, cooling system, etc… The only necessary in liquefied natural gas facility construction is to build a concrete plateau for setting up tanks, pumps and evaporators.
    6. There are no maintenance costs for liquefied natural gas station
      CryoGas places tanks for liquid methane, high pressure pumps and vaporizers as its main tools, keeps them up and takes care of safety and functionality.

    Use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicles gains in importance, and logical development of this program is exactly the liquefaction technology, which brings great opportunities for economic and environmental benefits, including usage in public transport, even where broader gasification has not even started.

    CryoGas is a company specialized in the field of cryogenic techniques of low temperature, has its own knowledge and equipment, and cooperates with foreign companies in this area. This allows us to be responsible for the development of liquefaction of natural gas and to obtain high purity liquid methane as a fuel for motor vehicles.

    Considering all these facts, there are no technical obstacles for wider use of natural gas as fuel for motor vehicles in public transport. Foreign experience already has shown us the environmental and economic advantages.

    The use of gasoline, diesel and auto gas as a fuel for motor vehicles depends directly on limited reserves of oil and it is obvious that we will have to use other fuels in the near future, primarily natural gas. The reserves of natural gas are much larger and its exploitation is far cheaper.

    On the other hand, environmental requirements and charges for the use of conventional motor fuels will make CNG the most economical alternative, especially in cities. Logical evolution of this program is liquefaction technology, which brings great opportunities for economical and environmental benefits, including usage in the public transport, even where broader gasification has not even started.

    Equipment for use of liquefied natural gas in vehicles is known and based on cryogenic technology of low temperatures (liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen) in which CryoGas has many years of experience, and individual components such as vacuum-insulated storage tank in the car, was produced in CryoGas system.

    Especially featured - CNG

    Compressed natural gas is particularly suitable for use in industry and in the areas without natural gas pipeline.

    We are able to offer excellent conditions for supplying our customers whith this energy source. CNG is the best alternative for Bhutan, heating oil and other energy sources. Distribution would be carried out through a battery trailer or containers, which would be filled with purified and compressed natural gas in ours filling stations.

    CNG - Methane