CNG (Compressed Natural Gas - Methane) - C
Natural gas (Methane) as fuel for motor vehicles
The use of gasoline, diesel and liquified petroleum gas, as fuel for motor vehicles, is directly dependent on the limited oil reserves and it is clear that in the near futureother forms of energy sources will have to be used, primarily natural gas, the reserves of which are significantly larger and the exploitation of which is far cheaper. On the other hand, the environmental demands and taxes related to the use of conventional fuels definitely make natural gas the most economical alternative to oil and petroleum products, especially in cities.
Nowadays, natural gas is,more than ever, used as fuel for motor vehicles all over the world, due to the fact that, in certain regions and cities of Europe, a great deal of regulations prohibits the use of diesel. Methane driven vehicles are already present on our roads as well and the experiences regarding economy and engine performance are more than favourable.
Dried and compressed within motor vehicle filling stations – CNG represents a cleaner fuel compared to gasoline and liquified petroleum gas, with octane number 140 (gasoline:95, liquified petroleum gas –LPG:115). Due to its favourable combustion characteristics, the consumption of CNG expressed in kilograms (1 Nm3 = 0.70 kg), is considerably lower compared to other fuels.
It can therefore be said, about compressed natural gas, that it is the most promising fossil fuel – not only due to the existing natural reserves and a very reasonable price, but also from an ecological point of view. Vehicles fuelled by CNG are especially suitable for urban environments (where the pollution is usually the highest) – due to the significantly reduced emission of harmful components in the exhaust fumes. For this reason, CNG is predominantly used by: DELIVERY and COMMUNAL VEHICLES, PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION, AMBULANCE VEHICLES, TAXI VEHICLES, TOURIST VEHICLES, and the so-called INTERNAL TRANSPORT VEHICLES (e.g. forklifts).
In addition, the use of CNG has other visible benefits as well:
- lower cost than conventional fuels;
- extension of engine life for ≈50%;
- twice as long period of useof engine oil;
- higher rate of success in starting the engine at very low t°;
- absolute control of fuel consumption (which is practically only possible with CNG);
- better fuel equivalent (1 litre of conventional liquid fuel ≈ 1.2 m3natural gas ≈ 0.8 kg CNG)!
CryoGas in 2007,CryoGas commissioned the first commercial CNG filling station in the Omladinskih brigada Street in Novi Beograd (location AirportCity), and not long after that in Čukarica – Orlovača (2012) and Palilula – Bogoslovija (2017), and in the meantime, in Subotica (2016) as well! The plan is to further construct new stations of this type and therefore invest in the expansion of the distribution network.
CryoGas, in cooperation with experts in this field, also performs the necessary natural gas installationsin motor vehicles. The installation workshop is located in Belgrade–Municipality of Palilula, at the Bogoslovija location. The equipment manufacturer is an Italian company Tarantini, and the equipment is the one that is factory-fitted by FIAT in its vehicles and can be seen in the Multipla model.
As the best solution, we recommended the purchase of a vehicle with a factory-fitted natural gas installation and adjusted preignition, so that the gas cylinder installation does not take up much space in the rear of the vehicle. These vehicles are more expensive, but profitability is guaranteed and provided for by the difference in fuel prices and the number of kilometres travelled.
In contrast to liquified petroleum gas (LPG), which is a mixture of propane and butane in liquid state, natural gas (CNG) is in gaseous statein the vehicle cylinder, under the pressure of 200 Bar. The cylinders are produced by different manufacturers, they have different volumes and dimensions. Up to three cylinders are usually installed – with volumes of up to 27 L containing up to 12.50 kg of compressed natural gas, which is sufficient for vehicle autonomy of up to 250 km in city traffic. On the open road, the autonomy of the vehicle goes up to 400 km!
The remainder of the installation is similar to the liquified petroleum gas installation, with the pressure regulator, additional heater, pipes, filling connector and, of course, mandatory electronics.
The introduction of natural gas as fuel for public transportation and delivery vehicles is no longer a matter of the future, but of the present, and for most cities around the globe – it already represents a long-standing practice. For the City of Belgrade this question is of utmost importance, both from the ecological and from the economic point of view.
Belgrade does not have a subway or fast city trains and is therefore oriented towards public bus transportation – as predominant, in the long run. Due to the exhaust fumes of these vehicles, the city is facing an ecological crisis, accompanied by a high priceof public transportation because of the cost of diesel-fuel, which is at least twice as expensive than natural gas – compressed (CNG) or liquified (LNG), while the harmful effects of diesel are already well known.
The reduction of pollution and compliance with strict environmental regulations were the main motivators for the metropolises of the world to enter the program of using natural gas as fuel for public transportation vehicles. Both compressed (CNG) and liquified (LNG) natural gases are in use. The basic reason for the more frequent use of compressed, as opposed to liquified natural gas – lies in the fact that liquification is a procedure that is performed in expensive plants.
The United States are a leader in the introduction of natural gas (LNG) in public transportation vehicles, while compressed natural gas (CNG) is still used in Europe and the remainder of the world. For example, in Los Angeles there are 250 buses running on liquefied natural gas, in Phoenix 419, Dallas, Houston, El Paso over 200 buses, etc.
According to the experiences of the city of Phoenix (Arizona - USA), the introduction of liquid natural gas in public transportation vehicles required a completely non-traditional approach to the problem, as well as speeding up the process of reaching all the decisions, so the city authorities have formed specialist teams of experts from companies that deal with these technologies. For example, when it came to the transport of natural gas from the liquefication plant to the supply stations – contracts have been made with specialized companies for the transport of liquefied cryogenic gases.
As previously stated - CryoGas has, in 2007, launched the first commercial compressed natural gas vehicle filling station in Belgrade and Serbia, which was practically a starting point for the acquisition of necessary experiences, as well as for the further development of the program for the utilization of natural gas as fuel for motor vehicles.
CNG Industrial Application
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is also very suitable for industrial and production applications – especially in those areas where no pipelines have been installed.
CryoGas is able to offer excellent conditions for the supply of this energy resource, which, in terms of economic viability, is a real alternative to butane, crude oil and other conventional energy sources. The supply and distribution are made via trailers, batteries of cylinders and individual cylinders – filled with purified and compressed natural gas in our filling plants.